Assessment of horizontal gene transfer from genetically-modified food into human and animals

Bailey MJ, Timms-Wilson TM, Lilley AK, Godfray HCJ. (2001) The risks and consequences of gene transfer from genetically-manipulated microorganisms in the environment. genetically-modified Organisms Research Report No. 17, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, U.K, 38p.

Duggan PS, Chambers PA, Heritage J, Forbes JM. (2000) Survival of free DNA encoding antibiotic resistance from transgenic maize and the transformation activity of DNA in ovine saliva, ovine rumen fluid and silage effluent. University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

Evaluating the risks associated with using GMOs in human foods. (2002) Technical Report on the Food Standards Agency project G010008, 5 July. University of Newcastle, UK.

Flint HJ, Mercer DK, Scott KP, Melville C, Glover LA. (2001) Survival of ingested DNA in the gut and the potential for genetic transformation of resident bacteria. Technical Report FSA Project Code FSG01007.

Hodgson E. (2001) Genetically modified plants and human health risks: Can additional research reduce uncertainties and increase public confidence? Toxicological Sciences 63(2): 153-156.

Jonas DA, Elmadfa I, Engel KH, Heller KJ, Kozianowski G, Konig A, Muller D, Narbonne JF, Wackernagel W, Kleiner J. (2001) Safety considerations of DNA in food. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 45(6): 235-254.

Landis WG, Lenart LA, Spromberg JA. (2000) Dynamics of horizontal gene transfer and the ecological risk assessment of genetically engineered organisms. Human and ecological Risk Assessment 6(5): 875-899.

Malik VS and Saroha MK. (1999) Marker gene controversy in transgenic plants. National Karnal Bunt: A fungal disease of wheat. The Forum-Biotech Issues, USDA-aphIS Plant Protection and Quarantine, 58p.

Redenbaugh K, Hiatt W, Martineau B, Emlay D. (1995) Determination of the safety of genetically engineered crops. Genetically modified foods : safety issues / p. 72-87. Notes Developed from symposium sponsored by the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry of the 208th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, August 21-25, 1994, Washington, D.C.

Schlundt J. (2001) Safety Assessment of Foods Derived from Genetically Modified Microorganisms. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 13(4): 197-211.

Stewart CN, Richards HA, Halfhill MD. (2000) Transgenic plants and biosafety; science, misconceptions and public perceptions. BioTechniques 29(4): 832-843.

Thomson JA. 2001. Horizontal transfer of DNA from GM crops to bacteria and to mammalian cells. Journal of Food Science 66(2): 188-193.

Gene flow between transgenic and non-transgenic plants

Messeguer J, Fogher C, Guiderdoni E, Marfa V, Catala MM, Baldi G, Mele E. (2001) Field assessments of gene flow from transgenic to cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) using a herbicide resistance gene as tracer marker. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 103(8): 1151-1159.

Traditional plant breeding methods vs. biotechnology

Conner AJ, Jacobs JME. (1999) Genetic engineering of crops as potential source of genetic hazard in the human diet. Mutation Research-Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 443 (1-2): 223-234.