Monocots (Monocotyledonous) comprise one of the large divisions of Angiosperm plants (flowering plants with seeds protected within a vessel). They are herbaceous plants with parallel veined leaves and have an embryo with a single cotyledon, as opposed to dicot plants (dicotyledonous), which have an embryo with two cotyledons.

Most of the important staple crops of the world, the so-called cereals, such as wheat, barley, rice, maize, sorghum, oats, rye and millet, are monocots. Other food crops such as onion, garlic, ginger, banana, plantain, yam and asparagus are also classified as monocots.

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of commercially important monocots was first attained in rice and maize in the mid 90’s. Following these achievements, other monocot crops were successfully transformed and refinements of techniques led to improved regeneration of transformed monocot tissue.

In this section of the document, the selected patents directed to Agrobacterium transformation of monocots are categorized as:

  • General transformation methods, regardless the vector type used for transformation.
  • Monocot plants, which are divided into:
    • Particular plants, including grains, tropical fruits and flowers. In alphabetical order, patents on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the following monocots are analyzed individually: banana, barley, duckweed, gladiolus, maize, onions, pineapple, rice, sorghum, turfgrass and wheat. The inventions cover aspects such as the initial tissue used for transformation, transformation protocols, media composition, and in some cases, the insertion of particular genes.